Should We be Using Fentanyl for Lethal Injections?
Back in the 1970s, California Governor Ronald Reagan, who would later serve as president, became one of the first public officials to advocate using lethal injections to execute criminals who were on death row. Reagan speculated that the process would be no different than a veterinarian putting down a horse. In the mind of Reagan, a man or woman sentenced to death would go to sleep and never wake up. A range of drugs have been used over the years, and the first use of fentanyl for lethal injections took place in 2018.
The Execution Cocktail
States have never used a single drug to execute condemned criminals. The process has always involved the use of a cocktail of at least three different drugs. The specific drugs have varied across states and across time. In general, the first drug administered puts the condemned person to sleep. Other drugs are then used to paralyze and then stop the heart of the condemned. Most states have been reluctant to put inmates to death, and this reluctance has grown in recent years.
While capital punishment IS legal in the state of California, in March 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom halted further executions with an official moratorium.
Within a few months in 2014, prison officials botched two executions. On one occasion, the phlebotomist charged with administering the drugs intravenously failed to find a vein. The condemned inmate died of a heart attack after struggling for several minutes. The other inmate was administered the wrong drug.
Drugmakers have rebelled against the use of their drugs in lethal injections. This action by drug manufacturers has led states to resort to other options for carrying out lethal injections. One of those options that some have suggested is the use of fentanyl, a readily available opioid.
Nebraska Uses Fentanyl
In August 2014, Nebraska became the first state to use fentanyl for lethal injections. The condemned man, Carey Dean Moore, did not attempt to stop his execution. However, two drug companies did because they wanted to avoid the stigma of having their drugs used in executions. The state turned to fentanyl, which is a drug that is up to 50 times more potent than heroin.
The Dangers of Fentanyl
The fact that a state has used fentanyl for execution should show how potent and deadly the drug can be. Fentanyl is intended for the relief of extreme pain, but when used outside of its intended use, it can lead to death.
Over the past few years, there has been a massive spike in the number of deaths attributed to people overdosing on fentanyl. From a relatively small number of fatalities as recently as 2013, the number of deaths tied to an overdose of fentanyl rose to more than 28,400 in 2017. This should not be surprising given the fact that the drug is now a component of an execution cocktail. Even when the drug does not kill, it can bind to opioid receptors in the brain or cause a person’s breathing to slow or stop altogether.
The fentanyl crisis has now reached California, and there is a danger that its effects could spread. If you or someone you love has issues with fentanyl addiction, it’s possible to get help. We’re dedicated to assisting people who have problems with addiction, and we strive to provide a holistic approach. In addition to offering a detox program, we also provide individual and group counseling that will support you and your loved ones in your struggle. We’re committed to helping people defeat their dependency on fentanyl, so be sure to contact us today.
NOTE: While capital punishment IS legal in the state of California, in March 2019, Governor Gavin Newsom halted further executions with an official moratorium.
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About the author:
Nicole earned her doctoral degree in Psychology with an emphasis on marriage and family therapy at California School of Professional Psychology. Her doctoral thesis was a grounded theory study exploring the role of alienation and connectedness in the life course of addiction. She specializes in treating addiction and trauma. She is certified in DBT and EMDR, two of the most highly regarded evidence-based methods in psychotherapy. Dr. Doss is a strong LGBT advocate and provides open and affirming support to her LGBT clients.
Dr. Doss’s earlier education included graduating cum laude from the University of California, Irvine in June of 2007 with a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology. While there, she received honors recognition by Psi Chi and Golden Key honor societies.
Nicole has been working with alcoholics and addicts in our California drug and alcohol rehab center as an advisor and counselor for many years. She is passionate about providing quality counseling and care to her clients. Her main focus is on integrating the 12 Step and disease models of addiction with experiential therapeutic theory. She is married to Greg; they have two adorable sons together and an energetic yellow Labrador Retriever.